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Protocol Details

Breast Imaging Screening Studies in Women at High Genetic Risk of Breast Cancer: Annual Follow-up Study

This study is NOT currently recruiting participants.

Summary | Eligibility | Citations | Contacts




Sponsoring Institute

National Cancer Institute (NCI)

Recruitment Detail

Type: Completed Study; data analyses ongoing
Gender: Female
Min Age: 18
Max Age: 100

Referral Letter Required


Population Exclusion(s)



Breast MRI;
Nipple Aspirate Fluid;
Transvaginal ultrasound;
Ductal lavage

Recruitment Keyword(s)



Breast Cancer

Investigational Drug(s)


Investigational Device(s)



Drug: 2-Fluorodeoxyglucose

Supporting Site

National Cancer Institute

This study will explore new screening methods for early detection of breast and ovarian cancer in women at high risk for these diseases, because they have an altered breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2 (BRCA2) gene. It will also try to determine if breast tissue characteristics in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation differ from those in women with a normal gene.

Premenopausal women between 25 and 45 years of age who have participated in National Cancer Institute studies for families or individuals at high genetic risk of cancer (78-C-0039 or 99-C-0081) and who have at least a 50 percent probability of carrying an altered BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene may be eligible for this study.

At the first visit, participants will have from 4 to 24 tablespoons of blood drawn and will be interviewed about breast and ovarian cancer risk factors, family and personal history of cancer, history of pregnancies, use of oral contraceptives and other hormones and drugs, and previous surgery on the breasts and ovaries. In addition, they will undergo the following procedures:

Routine breast and ovarian cancer screening for high-risk women, including a mammogram, breast and pelvic exam, instruction in breast self-examination, CA 125 blood test and transvaginal ultrasound of the ovaries.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the breast MRI uses a strong magnetic field to show structural and chemical changes in tissues.

Breast Duct Lavage In this procedure samples of fluid and cells from the lining of the breast milk ducts are collected to look for cancerous or pre-cancerous cell changes.

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan PET scanning will be done only in participants whose mammogram or MRI findings require additional evaluation. This diagnostic test is based on differences in how cells take up and use glucose (sugar), one of the body s main fuels.

Annual follow-up visits will be scheduled for 3 years and will include routine high-risk screening as described above, blood draw, update of family history and risk factors, breast MRI, breast duct lavage and, if there are changes on the MRI or mammogram that need further evaluation, the PET will be repeated.

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INCLUSION CRITERIA - Annual Follow-up Study:

To participate in the Annual Follow-up Study, a woman must:

Be at least 25 years of age (or 5 years younger than the age at diagnosis of the youngest family member with a tumor associated with the Breast-Ovarian Cancer Syndrome) and less than 56 years of age.

Must be:

A known BRCA1 or BRCA2 deleterious mutation carrier


A first- or second- degree relative of an individual known to carry a deleterious BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation


A first- or second- degree relative of an individual with a tumor associated with the Breast-Ovarian Cancer Syndrome in a family with a known BRCA mutation.

Have undergone genetic counseling and risk assessment.

Agree to release of genetic test result for stratification purposes, whether or not she has chosen to receive individual test results for clinical decision-making.

Have an ECOG performance status of 0-1.

Be able to provide informed consent.

Have at least one non-irradiated breast.

EXCLUSION CRITERIA - Annual Follow-up Study:

Any of the following will result in exclusion from the Annual Follow-up Study:

Pregnancy or lactation within 6 months of enrollment.

Abnormal CA-125 level.

Bilateral breast cancer, ovarian (any stage) or breast cancer (Stage IIB or worse) unless relapse free for 5 years prior to the time of enrollment.

Patients with DCIS, Stage I and Stage II breast cancer are eligible provided that it has been at least 6 months from the completion of primary therapy (surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy as applicable). Tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitor adjuvant therapy is allowed.

Patients with DCIS, Stage I and Stage II breast cancer who have had a local relapse after primary treatment are not eligible unless they have been relapse free for 5 years prior to the time of enrollment.

History of other invasive cancer unless relapse free for 5 years prior to the time of enrollment. Non-Melanoma skin cancer or cervical carcinoma in situ are excepted.

Previous bilateral mastectomy or bilateral radiation therapy.

Weigh over 136 kilograms.

Allergy to gadolinium.

Allergy to lidocaine or Marcaine (bupivacaine). (excluded from breast duct lavage only).

Subareolar or other surgery of the breast to be studied which might disrupt the ductal systems. For example, papilloma resection, biopsy or fine needle aspirations (FNAs) within 2 cm of the nipple might disrupt the ductal systems. Biopsies or FNAs greater than 2 cm from the nipple are acceptable. (Excluded from ductal lavage only)

A breast implant or prior silicone injections in the breast to be studied. (Exclude from breast ductal lavage only)

Active infections or inflammation in a breast to be studied. (breast ductal lavage only)

Medical or psychiatric disorder which, in the opinion of the Principal Investigator, would preclude informed consent or ability to participate in clinical research.

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Koehly LM, Peters JA, Kenen R, Hoskins LM, Ersig AL, Kuhn NR, Loud JT, Greene MH. Characteristics of health information gatherers, disseminators, and blockers within families at risk of hereditary cancer: implications for family health communication interventions. Am J Public Health. 2009 Dec;99(12):2203-9. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2008.154096. Epub 2009 Oct 15.

Loud JT, Thi(SqrRoot)(Copyright)baut AC, Abati AD, Filie AC, Nichols K, Danforth D, Giusti R, Prindiville SA, Greene MH. Ductal lavage in women from BRCA1/2 families: is there a future for ductal lavage in women at increased genetic risk of breast cancer? Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Apr;18(4):1243-51. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0795. Epub 2009 Mar 31.

Gierach GL, Loud JT, Chow CK, Prindiville SA, Eng-Wong J, Soballe PW, Giambartolomei C, Mai PL, Galbo CE, Nichols K, Calzone KA, Vachon C, Gail MH, Greene MH. Mammographic density does not differ between unaffected BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and women at low-to-average risk of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010 Aug;123(1):245-55. doi: 10.1007/s10549-010-0749-7. Epub 2010 Feb 4.

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Principal Investigator

Referral Contact

For more information:

Sharon A. Savage, M.D.
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
(240) 276-7241

Sharon A. Savage, M.D.
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
(240) 276-7241

NCI Referral Office
National Institute of Health Clinical Center (CC), 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, United States: NCI Clinical Trials Referral Office

Clinical Trials Number:


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