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Protocol Details

A Phase I/II Study of the JAK1/2 Inhibitor Ruxolitinib for Relapsed / Refractory Immune Bone Marrow Failure

This study is currently recruiting participants.

Summary | Eligibility | Citations | Contacts




Sponsoring Institute

National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI)

Recruitment Detail

Type: Participants currently recruited/enrolled
Gender: Male & Female
Min Age: 18 Years
Max Age: 99 Years

Referral Letter Required


Population Exclusion(s)



Hematologic toxicity;

Recruitment Keyword(s)



Severe Aplastic Anemia;
Single lineage cytopenias, T-LGL;
Hypoplastic MDS

Investigational Drug(s)


Investigational Device(s)



Drug: Ruxolitinib

Supporting Site

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute


Immune bone marrow failure is a condition that occurs when a person s immune system attacks the cells of the bone marrow. This can lead to diseases including different types of anemias and blood cancers. Some of these diseases can be deadly. Better treatments are needed.


To test a drug (ruxolitinib) in people with different types of immune bone marrow failure.


Adults aged 18 and older with an immune bone marrow failure.


Participants will be screened. They will have a physical exam. They will give samples of blood and saliva. They will have a bone marrow biopsy: A large needle will be inserted into a small cut to remove a sample of the soft tissue inside the bone. Some participants may have a skin biopsy: A small piece of skin will be removed. Some may have a computed tomography (CT) scan: They will lie on a table that slides into a donut-shaped machine that uses X-rays to make pictures of the inside of the body.

Ruxolitinib is a tablet taken by mouth. Participants will take the drug twice a day for up to 6 months.

Participants will have blood tests every week while they are taking the drug. These tests can be done by the participant s own physician and the results sent to the researchers.

Participants will have clinic visits after taking the drug for 3 months and 6 months and then after 1, 2, and 3 years. The blood tests and bone marrow biopsy will be repeated.

Participants who improve while taking the drugs may go on to an extension phase of the study.

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Participants of both sexes will be considered for inclusion in this study. There will be no racial, ethnic, or gender discrimination. To be eligible to participate in the treatment portion of this study, an individual must meet all of the following inclusion criteria and none of the following exclusion criteria:



-Ability of the participant or legally authorized representative (LAR) to understand and be willing to sign a written informed consent document

-Age 18 or older

-For females of childbearing potential, stated willingness to use an accepted method of contraception for the duration of the study. Accepted methods of contraception are:

--Total abstinence

--Use of an implanted or intrauterine hormonal device for at least 30 consecutive days before study drug administration

--Use of oral, patch or injectable contraceptives or a vaginal hormonal device for at least 30 consecutive days before study drug infusion

--Use of a non-hormonal intrauterine device for at least 30 consecutive days before study drug administration

--Two barrier methods such as a diaphragm with spermicide or a condom with spermicide

-For sexually active males with a female partner of childbearing potential, stated willingness to agree to use a condom with spermicide for the duration of the study.

-Diagnosis of immune bone marrow failure (see specific cohort)


Meet all 3 criteria below:

Severe aplastic anemia:

-Bone marrow cellularity <30% excluding lymphocytes


At least two of the following:

--Absolute neutrophil count < 0.5 x 10^9/L

--Platelet count < 20 x 10^9/L

--Absolute Reticulocyte count < 60 x 10^9/L

-Relapsed or refractory disease as evidenced by a course of at least 1 prior therapy.

-Not suitable for transplant due to age, co-morbidities, lack of suitable donor, or participant choice.

NOTE: Patients who have a documented historic diagnosis of SAA and have received an ATG-based therapy in the past and are now relapsed / refractory may be included in this cohort even if documentation of original CBC and bone marrow are unavailable.


Moderate AA:

-Aplastic anemia (hypocellular bone marrow for age) with no evidence for other disease processes causing marrow failure, and depression of at least two out of three blood counts below the normal values but not fulfilling the criteria for SAA:

--Absolute neutrophil count <= l.2 x 10^9/L

--Platelet count <= 70 x 10^9/L

--Anemia with hemoglobin <= 9 g/dL and absolute reticulocyte count < 60 x 10^9/L or transfusion dependence

-Relapsed or refractory disease as evidenced by a course of at least 1 prior therapy.


Cytopenia in lineage as below:

-Erythroid lineage: Hemoglobin <= 9 g/dL and reticulocyte count < 60 x 10^9/L or red cell transfusion dependence and hypocellular bone marrow for age with absent or reduced red cell precursors


Platelet lineage: Thrombocytopenia <= 30 x 10^9/L or platelet transfusion dependence and hypocellular bone marrow for age with absent or reduced megakaryocytes


Granulocyte lineage: Neutropenia <= 0.5 x 10^9/L and hypocellular bone marrow for age with absent or reduced granulopoiesis

-No evidence of viral or drug suppression of the marrow, T-LGL, dysplasia, or underproduction anemias secondary to B12, folate, iron or other reversible causes.

-Relapsed or refractory disease as evidenced by a course of at least 1 prior therapy.


-Clinical history supportive of the diagnosis of T-LGL leukemia (i.e., a history of cytopenias with peripheral blood morphologic evidence of LGLs).

-Immunophenotypic studies of peripheral blood showing an increased population of TLGLs (suggested by staining with CD3+, CD8+ and CD16+ or CD57+) or gamma-delta T cells.

-Restricted or clonal rearrangement of the T-cell receptor by PCR

AND cytopenia as follows:

Severe neutropenia (< 0.5 x 10^9/L);


Severe thrombocytopenia (<= 20 x 10^9/L), or moderate thrombocytopenia (<= 50 x 10^9/L) with active bleeding;


Symptomatic anemia with a hemoglobin <= 9 g/dL or red blood cell transfusion dependence

-Relapsed or refractory disease as evidenced by a course of at least 1 prior therapy.


-A diagnosis of hypoplastic MDS by WHO 2016, WHO 2022, or ICC criteria with significant cytopenias defined as:

Bone marrow hypocellular for age


Either morphologic dysplasia or cytogenetic abnormality


At least one of the following:

--Neutropenia: Absolute neutrophil count < 0.5 x 10^9/L

--Thrombocytopenia: Platelet count < 30 x 10^9/L or platelet transfusion dependence

--Anemia: Hemoglobin < 9g/dL or red cell transfusion-dependence or absolute reticulocyte count <60 x 10^9/L

-Relapsed or refractory disease as evidenced by a course of at least 1 prior therapy


An individual who meets any of the following criteria will be excluded from participation in this study:

-Known diagnosis or high suspicion of Fanconi anemia or other constitutional marrow failure syndrome

-Evidence of a clonal disorder with poor risk cytogenetics per R-IPSS criteria involving chromosome 7 (-7del/-7), chromosome 3 (inv 3/del3/t(3)) or three or more chromosomal abnormalities (complex).

-MDS with EB-1, EB-2, AML, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), MDS/MPN.

-For MDS: Has received erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), hypomethylating agent, chemotherapy, or immunomodulatory therapy within 8 weeks prior to study entry.

-History of progressive multifocal leuko-encephalopathy (PML)

-Infection not adequately responding to appropriate therapy

-Participants with untreated or poorly controlled HIV, Hepatitis B or C

-Participants with cancer who are on active chemotherapeutic treatment

-Presence of severely impaired renal function defined by CrCl (as calculated by eGFR) less than 15 mL/min not requiring renal dialysis

-Current pregnancy, or unwillingness to take oral contraceptives or use a barrier method of birth control or practice abstinence to refrain from pregnancy if of childbearing potential during this study

-Moribund status or concurrent hepatic, renal, cardiac, neurologic, pulmonary, infectious, or metabolic disease of such severity that it would preclude the participant s ability to tolerate protocol therapy, or that death within 7-10 days is likely

-Inability to understand the investigational nature of the study or to give informed consent or does not have a legally authorized representative or surrogate that can provide informed consent

-Hypersensitivity to ruxolitinib or its components

-Inability to swallow pills

-Currently breastfeeding

-Active non-melanoma skin cancer

-Acute thrombosis (myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease requiring stents, stroke, pulmonary embolism, or deep venous thrombosis) within the last 6 months

-Patients with a PNH clone >50% who are not taking anticoagulation or anticomplement therapy

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Not Provided

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Principal Investigator

Referral Contact

For more information:

Emma M. Groarke, M.D.
National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
NIHBC 10 - CRC BG RM 4-5130
(301) 496-5093

Ivana Darden, R.N.
National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
National Institutes of Health
Building 10
Room 4-5362
10 Center Drive
Bethesda, Maryland 20892
(301) 827-2988

Office of Patient Recruitment
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)
Building 61, 10 Cloister Court
Bethesda, Maryland 20892
Toll Free: 1-800-411-1222
Local Phone: 301-451-4383
TTY: TTY Users Dial 7-1-1

Clinical Trials Number:


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